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Brazilian Peppertree Stem Humdrum Weevil, Apocnemidophorus pipitzi

Brazilian Peppertree Stem Humdrum Weevil, Apocnemidophorus pipitzi

Inside the The state, in which it had been create on 1950s, E. unguiculus are generally distributed towards the Brazilian peppertree, nevertheless insect frequently isn’t well enough numerous in order to really damage the fresh new bush (Yoshioka and you will , personal observance). The fresh new ineffectiveness off Elizabeth. unguiculus just like the a physical manage broker regarding the Hawaiian islands may end up being owed partly to biotic death products novel to this ecosystem. Such, a couple of wasps which were brought to your Hawaii getting traditional physiological control of your sugar cane leafroller Hedylepta (=Omiodes) accepta (Butler) was in fact receive fighting E. unguiculus following it absolutely was put-out up against Brazilian peppertree (Krauss 1963).

Brand new genders from A beneficial

No matter if satisfactory biological control of Brazilian peppertree from the E. unguiculus wasn’t achieved in the Hawaiian archipelago, it inability shouldn’t preclude the introduction of the brand new insect into Fl. Episimus unguiculus was a far better biological handle representative regarding Brazilian peppertree in the Florida since it would be delivered toward a great brand new ecosystem where biotic mortality away from put and indigenous parasitoids and you can predators could be less big compared to the The state. Host variety testing try finished, and you may a release petition are submitted to the brand new Mark during the (Cuda et al. 2019). But not, Tag failed to highly recommend field discharge in the Florida of the threat of noticeable battle that have indigenous Episimus spp., in addition to potential for new bug so you’re able to attack expanded pistachio on unlikely event one to Age. unguiculus emigrated so you can south California and you can Washington. The chance so you’re able to nontarget insects and you may plant life off E. unguiculus would be occupation examined using the F1 Sterile Bug Approach (Cuda 2016). Creation of F1 sterile progeny could be acquired by presenting the latest parental age bracket so you can lowest dosages of gamma light (Moeri mais aussi al. 2009). This will helps observations to the survival and you may impression of the F1 larvae on nontarget vegetation lower than real career standards and no chance of permanent institution, as the people made out of brand new F1 larvae are completely sterile.

Studies presented recently inside the north Argentina (McKay mais aussi al. 2009), and you can southeastern Paraguay shown the current presence of multiple the latest sheer enemies of Brazilian peppertree. Of these was in fact a couple of species of base bland weevils owned by the brand new genus Apocnemidophorus Hustache. The new weevils resemble bird droppings and you can instantaneously drop-off the fresh plants if they are disrupted. People from Apocnemidophorus pipitzi (Faust) was in fact gathered during the southeastern Paraguay and brought in into a florida containment lab from inside the . According to Wibmer and you will O’Brien (1986), A good. pipitzi is native to Argentina, Brazil, and you can Uruguay. An examination of weevil specimens transferred regarding entomology art gallery out of the fresh new Government School off Parana within the Curitiba, Brazil, showed that selections off An effective. pipitzi have been made in the usa of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Minas Gerais. pipitzi in Paraguay is actually a different nation record because of it kinds.

The latest thickness off An effective

The latest people assortment in size out-of 4 to help you seven mm in the duration consequently they are grayish brown from inside the color, with real time specimens often appearing a lot more rich and creamy than grayish (Shape 5). A thick spot out of light scales is truly apparent on edges of your pronotum that is faster pronounced into the bottom part of one’s abdomen. The rest of the human body have but a few thrown section that have light bills. Around are also numerous patches out-of black colored bills over the elytra, which can be obviously apparent lower than magnification, providing the elytra (forewings) a slightly mottled physical appearance.

pipitzi is easily distinguishable. Centered on C. W. O’Brien (personm.), there are apparent differences in the fresh new rostrum (snout) and you can antennal insertion for the people off Good. pipitzi. The girls enjoys an uniformly rounded seemingly uniformly cylindrical rostrum which have zero difference in diameter or curve at antennal installation. Having said that, the brand new people enjoys an effective dorsal extension in the antennal insertion, as well as the rostrum are narrowed outside of the installation, strongly tilted ventrally, and you will dorsally flattened. It is clear in tiny specimens. Almost every other types of the fresh new genus Plano escort, certain much the same in features, do not have such as for instance obvious men variations in the newest rostrum.



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